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Field Service Routing

Building effective Field Service Routing management software is complex. It involves considering various constraints to ensure efficient operations and service delivery. Factors such as technician availability, service time windows, equipment requirements, and travel distance all play a critical role.

At Timefold, we provide software builders with the necessary tools to tackle the challenges of Field Service Routing. Our model helps companies optimize their field service operations, improve technician productivity, and enhance customer satisfaction.

What is Field Service Routing?

Field Service Routing focuses on optimizing the allocation of service technicians to customer locations. It aims to determine the most efficient routes and schedules for technicians, considering factors such as service time windows, technician skills, equipment requirements, and travel distances.


Field Service Routing involves various constraints that shape the planning solution.

Hard constraints

Hard constraints represent limitations or requirements that must be adhered to.

They are essential for ensuring the feasibility and practicality of the solution. Failing to satisfy a hard constraint would render the solution infeasible or violate business rules and service level agreements.

Examples of hard constraints in Field Service Routing:

  • Technician availability: Assigning tasks only to available technicians based on their working hours and schedules.

  • Service time windows: Specifying the time intervals within which each customer expects to receive service.

  • Skill requirements: Matching technicians with the appropriate skills and qualifications required for specific tasks.

  • Equipment constraints: Considering the availability and compatibility of specialized equipment needed for certain service jobs.

  • Travel distance and time: Optimizing routes to minimize travel distance and ensure technicians reach customer locations efficiently.

Soft constraints

Soft constraints represent preferences, cost reductions, and service quality improvements. While meeting these constraints is desirable, they are not mandatory for a feasible planning solution.

Why Field Service Routing is complex

Field Service Routing becomes complex as the number of technicians, customers, and tasks increases. The challenge lies in finding the most efficient allocation of resources while considering constraints such as time windows, technician skills, equipment availability, and travel distances. The combinatorial nature of the problem escalates the complexity significantly.

A mathematical planning optimization solver like Timefold addresses this complexity effectively.

Operational fit

When managing day-to-day Field Service Routing, your software should offer the following features:

  • Continuous planning: Adapt and update routes and schedules dynamically as new service requests or changes occur.

  • Pinning: Fix or lock specific elements of the problem to their current state or desired values. For example, assigning a specific technician to a high-priority customer or task.

  • Overconstrained planning: Help find solutions when there are more service requests than available technicians by considering priority levels and optional tasks.

  • Real-time planning: React to real-time changes and disruptions, allowing for quick adjustments to the schedule and routing to optimize resource utilization.

Variations of Field Service Routing

Field Service Routing can be tailored to specific requirements with the inclusion of additional constraints:

  • Skill-Based Field Service Routing: Considers technician skills and qualifications in addition to service time windows and travel distance.

  • Field Service Routing with Multiple Time Windows: Incorporates multiple time windows for service delivery, allowing for flexibility in scheduling.

  • Dynamic Field Service Routing: Deals with real-time changes in service requests and technician availability, requiring adaptive route planning to optimize resource utilization.

  • Field Service Routing with Equipment Constraints: Accounts for specific equipment requirements for tasks, ensuring that technicians with the appropriate equipment are assigned.

  • Field Service Routing with Priority Levels: depending on business rules, certain jobs need to be serviced with higher priority